Pine trees have the unique crust, formed by numerous shield-shaped plates and fish-scales of the irregular shape, which easily are separated from the stem. The needles are grouped on the branches, beginning from the formation of small beams from two to five needles, but the remaining surface is covered with scaly needle without the chlorophyll. Seeds in the majority of the cases are winged and resound by wind. Both needles and cloths of stem and branches have glands, which release resin - very dense substance, which heals and which protects pine tree from the pathogenic organisms.
Caring in vegetation period
Sunlight is necessary for pine trees the whole year; therefore they require arrangement at the open and solar places. It should always be selected a well warmed place for the best growth of the tree. The only exceptions are the superfluously moist and closed places with poor air ventilation, especially in the rainy season and frost, since such conditions are heavy for the roots. Irrigation must be moderate. It is possible to manage without sputtering water from the pulveriser even in the summer period, since the pine trees fell well in hot and dry medium. To prepare a good soil, it should be considered the needs of each species, since some plants need exceptionally lime soils, others in the clay and siliceous and even sandy soils. Fertilizer must be introduced on the peak of the development of plant from the beginning of the spring to the autumn only before the radical trimmings or after transplantation. Transplantation should be produced before the appearance of the first flights, trying with the cutting of roots not to injure pivotal root.
Styling the bonsai
Needles in autumn are moved away, removing the dry and damaged needles at any time of year. Since the beginning of the appearance of new flights the needles should be removed, leaving about 1/3 of it in order to stimulate the appearance of smaller and more numerous needles. If on a branch appear immediately two flights, then the longest flight should be removed. Pruning branches should not be performed in the period of an intense growth of the pine tree, when the loss of resin can be very significant; branches should be cut in autumn. For changing the direction of branch growth it is necessary, prior to the beginning of the rest period, to wire them, dismantling them only in spring.
Illness and wreckers
It is necessary to scrupulously inspect leaves and branches in order to reveal the wreckers, which were settled on the tree (silk cocoons of the caterpillars of march silkworm, larva of beetle - grinders, aphis and woodlice). All this must be thoroughly processed by chemicals in order to avoid their propagation. From the most extended diseases it is possible to expect the appearance of brown abscesses, rust and root white rot. The introduction of poor quality fertilizer can cause the appearance of dry or reddish tips in needles, it is possible to entangle it with the fungus infection.
Typical forms of species
Pinus cembra. European cedar (European cedar pine tree). The alpine pine tree, which is possible to achiev remarkable results in the style “cascade” and “the tree, bent by wind”. Pinus sylvestris. Forest pine tree (usual pine tree). It issues characteristic pale crust, and also small needle and pine lumps. The mountain regions of the European continent are natural living environment; therefore this form of pine tree is fitted out to the extremely unfavourable climatic conditions. The separately appreciated property is the dual painting of its needles, dark green outside and gray from within. Pinus densiflora. Dense flower pine tree. Native of Asian continent. One of two undersized forms together with Pinus of mugo from the pinus sp., that are developed in the form of bushes, especially in the first years of life. Pinus mugo. Mountain pine tree. Natural living environment is located in the central Europe mountains. It is characterized by slow increase and thickset form in the adult state, which makes it separately suitable for the cultivation in the container. Pinus nigra. Austrian pine tree (s. black Austrian). Native of South and central Europe. It grows on the lime-stony soils. It has long, flexible and almost dark needle. Pinus pentaphylla. Himalayan pine tree. The native of Japan contains in the beam five needles. In contrast to the rest of the kinds when cutting of branches it is recommended not to touch the place it was cut, till it is completely dry.